The “New” Multiculturalism: National and Educational Perspectives, pp. 11 of 11

[i] This paper was presented in the symposium, ‘Diversity in Education: Perspectives, Challenges and Collaborative Actions’ at the International Conference on Teacher Education (ICTED) 2014 Quezon City, Philippines 21-23rd August 2014

[ii] Singapore’s dominantly Chinese population has sizable minority communities of Malays (approximately 13.3% in 2013), Indians (9.1%) and, more amorphously, ‘Others’ (3.3%). Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, Republic of Singapore, “Population Trends 2013 (Singapore”: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, 2013) Accessed 10 July Previously available at, p. 3

[iii] The first five words of the ‘Singapore Pledge’: We, the citizens of Singapore, pledge ourselves as one united people, regardless of race, language or religion, to build a democratic society, based on justice and equality, so as to achieve happiness, prosperity and progress for our nation.

[iv]Meritocracy: system of rewards based on talents, abilities and not of status and family connections.

[v]Mr. Heng renewed this message in August 2014 when he spoke of managing “new differences” in attitudes such as sexual orientation and wealth and harnessing these differences as beneficial to the society. See Lee Jian Xuan, “Heng: Critical to manage new differences in attitudes”, Straits Times, August 6 2014.

[vi]A line from the second part of the national anthem which is sung Bahasa Melayu (Malay language) which reads: Marilah kita bersatu dengan semangat yang baru; Semua kita berseru, Majulah Singapura, Majulah Singapura! Come, let us unite In a new spirit Together we proclaim Onward Singapore Onward Singapore



An Inspiring Quote

"[Open-mindedness] includes an active desire to listen to more sides than one; to give heed to facts from whatever source they come; to give full attention to alternative possibilities; to recognize the possibility of error even in the beliefs that are dearest to us."

~ John Dewey, How We Think

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