Towards an Effective Professional Development Model to Deepen History Teachers’ Understanding of Historical Concepts, pp. 7 of 16

Research Findings

a) Quantitative Findings

Survey findings from 16 participants were used to answer the first question, “Did the Master Class bring about changes in teachers’ classroom practice, knowledge and beliefs regarding the PD content?”

By means of statistical software, a paired-sample t-test on the raw data collected was conducted to compare the mean scores of the same group before the first session of the Master Class (pre-class survey) and at the end of the third session of the Master Class (post-class survey) to analyse changes in these domains (Knowledge, Practice and Beliefs). The results are illustrated in Table 2 below:

Table 2 (N=16): Mean scores in Knowledge, Practice and Belief Domains



Survey 1 (pre-class)

Survey 2 (post-class)

Difference in Mean

 Mean (SD)

 Mean (SD)

(Survey 1 - Survey 2)

Knowledge  (Causation)

 2.48  (0.61)

 1.62  (0.42)


Knowledge (Accounts)

 2.73  (0.59)

 1.65  (0.55)


Practice of PD content

 1.31  (0.39)

 1.56  (0.44)


Belief in PD content

 1.46  (0.51)

 1.46  (0.50)


Related Teaching Materials

Annex30.36 KB

An Inspiring Quote

"[Open-mindedness] includes an active desire to listen to more sides than one; to give heed to facts from whatever source they come; to give full attention to alternative possibilities; to recognize the possibility of error even in the beliefs that are dearest to us."

~ John Dewey, How We Think

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