Let’s Have Cooperative Learning for Lessons!, pp. 6 of 11

Another Jigsaw variation is the Within-group Jigsaw developed by Spencer Kagan (1994). Instead of having expert groups and home groups, each student in a group is given a piece of the academic material to master individually without moving to any expert groups. Students take turns to share their learning with their group members. This is followed by individual assessment. This approach helps to save time because there is no movement between expert groups and home groups. But the flip side is that students have to master the materials on their own without consultation with their fellow experts before they share their learning with their group members. This implies that students have the full responsibility of getting their learning right which can be pressurizing for some. In addition to this variation, Kagan has also outlined several other variations within the generic steps of Jigsaw. For more information, refer to Kagan’s (1994) book, “Cooperative Learning”.

The Jigsaw model is best used in the primary social studies lessons when teachers want their students to master the academic materials on their own. The Jigsaw is used during the lesson development and teachers need to ensure that the sections of academic content provided are compatible with one another in terms of the length and difficulty level for students so that everyone can finish their work around the same time.

d. Group Investigation

Group investigation or GI was developed by Shlomo Sharan and Yael Sharan (1976). Its main features are investigation, interaction, interpretation and intrinsic motivation (Sharan & Sharan, 1999). Investigation is the learning orientation adopted by teachers and their students. It involves the creation of inquiring communities where students are engaged in the investigation of a multi-faceted, challenging problem usually posed by the teacher. Students have many interaction opportunities with their group members during the discussions of their inquiry plans, examination of data sources and exchanges of ideas and information and discussions on the summary, integration and presentation of the findings to the class. Interpretation refers to students’ attempt at sense making of the collected data. It involves the process of negotiation between students’ existing and new knowledge acquired, and between student’s own ideas and other members’ ideas. Lastly, GI promotes intrinsic motivation because students have control over what they want to investigate and how they want to investigate, interpret and present their findings. Their learning is self-directed and they are further motivated to take part in the process when they interact with their groupmates. The GI procedures are as follows: 

An Inspiring Quote

"[Open-mindedness] includes an active desire to listen to more sides than one; to give heed to facts from whatever source they come; to give full attention to alternative possibilities; to recognize the possibility of error even in the beliefs that are dearest to us."

~ John Dewey, How We Think

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