Developing Formative Assessments on Evidence for Pre-University History, pp. 8 of 8


[i] The A-Level History curriculum seeks to develop students’ historical understanding. Historical concepts and skills are central to this. The teaching and learning syllabus can be found at  

[ii] Evaluating sources as evidence involves the processes of sourcing, contextualisation and corroboration as explained in Wineburg (1991).

[iii] Our assessments adapted the following HATs: “Edison and Kansas Housewife” (Stanford History Education Group [SHEG], n.d.a) and “Opposition to the Philippine-American War” (SHEG, n.d.b).

[iv] In developing the formative assessment, Sexias and Morton’s The Big Six Historical Thinking Concepts (2012) was used as the primary reference to define the concept of historical evidence and identify the behaviors exhibited by students with different levels of conceptual understanding.

[v] Our MCQ design took reference from VanSledright’s (2015) exploration of weighted MCQs. However, we made an important distinction. While his assessment was intended for summative purposes and incorporated a scoring element, our focus was on formative assessment. We designed the MCQs to provide teachers and students with feedback on students’ learning and did not incorporate a framework of scoring.

Related Teaching Materials

Appendix1.65 MB

An Inspiring Quote

"[Open-mindedness] includes an active desire to listen to more sides than one; to give heed to facts from whatever source they come; to give full attention to alternative possibilities; to recognize the possibility of error even in the beliefs that are dearest to us."

~ John Dewey, How We Think

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